The Mapuche and the Thousand-year’s old Forest
This community where literally in Mapudungun language (language Mapuche) means ” People of the Earth ” occupies the territory of Araucanie.
How I could better present the people Mapuche than to let Mapuche speak about it, this ancestral oral transmission shows this unique and inseparable link which they have with NUKE MAPU, the Earth Mother.
” Before the occupation of Araucanie, Our MAPU was filled with ancestral Thousand-years’old trees protected by the children Mapuche. These trees which in their turn protected Mapuches and gave her foods and a shelter.
Trees were immense and very wide having believed slowly in the course of the centuries.
It was the landscape of our cold forests of Wallmapu.
Of these trees, many Mapuche wears their surname.
Of these trees, numerous territories Mapuche bear her name “.
Who are Mapuches
Mapuche is ” first people ” who lived before the arrival of the Spanish colonists on a vast zone called “Araucas” by those who correspond to the center and to the North of the Patagonia today, the western Andes of Chile east of the Argentina..
crédit photo: wikipédia.org / Mapuche Machis
“Mapuche is ” first people ” who lived before the arrival of the Spanish colonists on a vast zone called “Araucas” by those who correspond to the center and to the North of the Patagonia today, the western Andes of Chile east of the Argentina.
” People of the earth” mapu = earth and che=people, showed a resistance from immemorial time, first of all by refusing the inca yoke to do the same there then with that of Spain. It allowed them to be the only people of America who was able to stop the conquest. This new situation allowed these formidable warriors to be recognized as Nation and Sovereignty and of this fact of obtaining certain guarantees for the respect for their fundamental rights. The pact of Quillin celebrated in 1641 gives evidence of it
It is during this long period of conflict with Spanish which an intense cultural exchange and a process of interbreeding builds up itself.
Mapuches had a brief moment of quiet and peace. The first years which follow the independence of Chile show careful Chileans.
However the auto proclamation of the Kingdom of Araucanie under the protection of France made the Chilean authority jump up. Military campaigns will be organized, called ” Pacification of Auricanie “. Mapuches will be overcome in 1882.
In the course of decades, the Chilean state will continue its process of extermination of Mapuche until established a system of ‘reserves’
Mapuches will see itself then deprived of their ground under Pinochet’s reign which emphasized the private individual property and of this fact favored the recovery of lands by forest large companies.
crédit photo: 8300.com.ar
In front of all these situations since the beginning of 1990s, a Movement Mapuche was set up to try to slow down these mega devastating projects. The Chilean government created ” native development areas but without well defined status. Everything the hopes are now shot to this initiative who hope will result in the recognition of the territorial rights of Mapuche and their autonomy
For the Mapuche from Argentina, we count 38 communities in the Neuquen region.
« Forest are the witnesses from our history since centyries. They saw the outcome of our resistance in front of Spanish colonists at first and then in front of Chilean and Argentine.
But these forests knew who were the children of this Mapu »
The Medicine Mapuche
” In the wet places of the forest, in the estuaries, there was all the medicine for Machitun, Lawen (medicine) for the medicine of the body and to clean up the spirit.
The Life grew everywhere under these old men vegetable “
Mapuches possesses a big knowledge of the traditional medicine by plants. To make continue these ancestral knowledge, a network was created on several countries such as Argentina, Chile, Brazil and Paraguay to favor the preservation, the knowledge of the medicinal flora and the use of these by local authorities.
A rural hospital (of Makewe) serving a Mapuche community in the South Chile develops since 1999 a medicine pressed at the same time on the traditional practices and the western medicine, according to an approach of complementarity.
” The beneficial effects of these big trees native of the cold forest of our Mapu are the Life for Mapuches; if they disappear the balance of the ecosystem which Mapuche protects will not be any more.
Within century, the ancestral trees were exterminated to be then replaced by others who grow(grow up) fast for the sale and the exploitations; so our big trees gave way to pines and eucalyptus.
Now, the landscape of Mapu is pleased.
Nothing grows in the grounds of these plantations, there is not Lawen (medicine anymore), there are not medicinal herbs anymore, there is no water, it is green deserts which acidify the Earth.
In the absence of water, the wet zones disappeared, rivers became small and wells give no more water.
The flora and fauna Mapuche which occupied these spaces, disappear by the strong negative environmental impact which produce the forest plantations.
They created an unprecedented ecological disaster.
These hundred-year-old, thousand-year-old trees are not any more there but they did not all disappear. In certain spaces, there are some very wide elderly. The child Mapuche is in charge of protecting them and of favoring their home(foyer).
This new Newen of these trees is going to fill(perform) our Mapu of our fauna(faun,crowd) of former days and it will be the balance of the ecosystem because it is what is good and just.
It is the thought Mapuche, our old men of the Mawiza will begin again to push. If there is of the earth(ground), there will be also trees. These trees are our Donors of Life and Defenders of our spaces “
crédit photo: ekladata.com
The Faiths Mapuche
“ The spirituality Mapuche implies to live with Mapu in a well-balanced ecosystem.
We know that the strengths of Mapu always let us exist next to animals and natural elements.
We are physical and spiritual persons where the circularity of the Life implies that everyone depends on the other one to continue this vital durability.
Balance that you look and that Mapuche in the Duality defends: the man and the woman, the animals and the man, the water and the fire, the ground and the stone.
So our people have never believed in God who is except Us. Forces of Nature are the defenders of the Mapuche.
The Energy is renewed in the spaces where we exist, where relaying our elders, and where observes our ancestors. The Sky, the Air, the Sea, the Mountain are all our Spaces. “
The faiths of the people Mapuche are established on the cult of the spirits of the Ancestors ( the spirit PILLAN) and the spirits and the elements of the Nature ( the spirit NGEN)
Mapuches is inseparable of the Earth, Animals, the Nature which they consider as Crowned.
The most important faces are MACHI ( the shaman) and the NGENPIN ( religious authorities)
Machi plays a leading role to look after the diseases, call to a good harvest and protect the cattle. They have an infinite knowledge of the healing plants which gets them Mapu.
crédit photo: amazonaws.com
Machi is the mediator enters the natural and supernatural world. The drum ( kultrung ) ceremonial making a reference to the universe is divided into four parts by a cross. Everything is li ” for the duality and the opposition between the sky and the ground, the man and the woman, the cycles of the nature.
East comes PILLAN, divinity which lives behind mountains. In the east is born the sun, the moons and the stars, from there, come all the powers and the strengths which maintain the life. There finds the way allowing the ascent towards the sacred world.
The flag Mapuche is closely linked to the representations made on Kultrung.
The most known ceremonies are Nguillatun, ceremony of prayers to ask for good favorable harvests, for a climate and take away the diseases; Machitun, rite of cures; Wentripantu, celebration of the solstice, the funeral and the rites of initiation.
As for our Ancestors, they send us messages through the PEWMA of the dreams.
The dreams are communications. It is a part of our culture Mapuche.
Our biggest speak about the importance of Pewma
Our grandchildren will also make it.
The circle of our Spirits opens and closes in my Dreams
We dream, we live and we dream
With our grandparents
It is important to make the difference between a state which is a political institution and a nation which represents a group of people gathered by a language, a culture and a common history
crédit photo: ekindadano.cl
The Nation Mapuche protects its cultural identity, exists and will exist
Sources: Gipta/wikipedia/humanite.fr/Unpo.org/axandes.blogspot/mapuchenation.org/araucania.org/araucanie.com/fb mapuche ta inchin/mapurbe69.blogspotPartager cet article